MANCHESTER BOROUGH POLICE 1839 - JULY 1842
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The township of Manchester and and five other townships merged to create
the Borough of Manchester in 1838 (see here).
Policing had been handled by each individual township. On 23rd January
1839 the Manchester Borough Watch Committee was formed consisting of 22
members of the Council who were to oversee the inception and at
first the running of
the local police force. The following are extracts from and based on the
minutes of the Watch Committee meetings. It reveals the names of
the men, and in some cases their addresses, who made up the
Manchester Borough Police Force. Also included are details of
promotions, demotions, fines and awards metered out to the men of the
force. It also shows some of the actions taken by Sir Charles Shaw, who
was the Chief Commissioner of Police. The minutes however do not explain
that legal objections were made to the Act which Incorporated
Manchester (and other places) by some sitting officials including some
Coroners. In some cases Inquests were being conducted twice. One by the
Manchester Borough Coroner and another by the former Township Coroner.
Another point of
dispute was the funding of the Police Force. The Watch Committee were
paying for the Police Force out of the Poor Rate and Police Rate as they
had no power to raise a Watch Rate. This was illegal and the Police
Commissioners attempted to use powers granted in the 1835 Act to block
them doing this. The result was that for a period of time there were three
separate police forces operating under the Court Leet, the Police
Commissioners and the Watch Committee. A special Bill was
introduced in mid 1839 to empower the Crown to appoint a Chief
Commissioner of Police for the Borough of Manchester to establish a new
Police Office. The Commissioner was to hold office for two years, during
which time it was hoped the litigation with regards to the municipal
charter would be completed. The Watch Committee did resume their
authority over the Borough Police Force at the end of the period, but it
was not until 1846 that the arguments over Incorporation were finally
These momentous decisions were
resolved at the Watch Committee meeting of March 25th 1839.
That the number of men to be engaged be fixed at 310 men for day and
night duty and their wages set at seventeen shillings per week.
That 20 Inspectors be appointed and that in making the estimates the
wages of the Inspectors be fixed at twenty seven shillings per week.
That £400 per year be fixed as the salary for the Head Constable.
That seven lockups would be required for the purpose of the police.
That the lockup keepers wages be fixed at twenty five shillings per
That seven clerks be employed at an average wage of twenty shillings per
At the meeting of the 24th April 1839 in addition to the above it was
decided to employ one Indoor Superintendent at a wage of £250 per year
and also 8 Indoor Constables at a wage of twenty five shilling per week.
However at the meeting the following day more additions were made and
the following staffing was agreed upon.
|1 HEAD CONSTABLE
||@ £400 PER YEAR
|1 INDOOR SUPERINTENDENT
||@ £250 PER YEAR
||@ £ 600 PER YEAR
||@ 27/- PER WEEK
||@ 17/- PER WEEK
|8 INDOOR CONSTABLES
||@ 25/- PER WEEK
|7 LOCK-UP KEEPERS
||@ 27/- PER WEEK
||@ AVERAGE 20/- PER WEEK
This made a revised total of 343 men, which was an increase of about 75 on the
numbers who had been employed with the area of the Borough. The Committee also
stated the aims of the force.
By the establishment of the force now recommended, there would be
secured within the borough an effective Police Force at all times on
duty throughout the day as well as the night, equal protection
will be afforded to every part of the borough, many parts of which
consisting of warehouses, are during many portions of the day left in a
most unprotected state.
In addition to the yearly expenditure it was agreed to spend £1,510 on
clothing for the men (constables) and £196 on clothing for the
Inspectors and Indoor Constables. Other expense up to £1,025 were
to be allowed.
At the Watch Committee meeting of May 30th it was resolved:
That this Committee do now proceed to the appointment of the officers
and police constables of the Borough Police Force and that they enter
upon their respective duties on Monday 17th July next (1839). The
following appointments were confirmed:
Inspectors: John Taylor, James Austin, Thomas Walker, James Cockayne,
John Peter Bibby, Joshua Brown, Wm. Kirkwood, Charles Jackson, James
Wardle, Joseph Twiss.
Mr Edward Davies appointed pro tempore Superintendent of Police.
The following men were all ex Manchester Watchmen appointed as
||2 Holmes Yard nr Ashley Lane
||6, Riga St, Hulme
||3 Joules Ct, Browncross St, New Bailey St,
||5 Sutton's Ct, David St.
||3 Landywell Ct, Greengate, Salford
||4 Owen's Ct, Hulme
||52 Woodward St, New Islington
||behind 63 Blossom St, Ancoats
||15 Lord St, late Duke St, Hulme
||4 Hargreaves St, Hulme
||23 Cambridge St, Chorlton on Medlock
||Bk York St, Hulme
||5 Russell St, Ashton New Rd
||3 Rever St, Ardwick
||83 Silver St
||94 Chapel St, Bank Top
||4 Stove St, Portland St
||4 Ailington St, Shaw's Brow, Salford
||3 Muslinett St, Hope St, Oldfield Rd,
||4 White Lion St, Liverpool Rd
||15 New Butler St, Oldham Rd
|| 5 Nelson St, Chapel St, London Rd
||Baxter's Building, Lloyd St, Hulme
||3 Lyon St, Higher Ardwick
||5 Collier St, Liverpool Rd
||7 Fielden Ct, Primrose St
||360 Oldham Rd
||8 Arthur St, Fairfield St
||9 Dyche St, Angel St
||15 Robinson's Blds, Queen St, Salford
||5 Edward St, Pendleton
||46 Tib St
||12 P???, West Long St, Church Gate Blds
||1 Mellor's Ct, Blakely St
||6 Temple St, Chorlton upon Medlock
||10 Clarence St, Hulme
||9 Mangle St, Bk Piccadilly
||3 Mount Pleasant St, Shaw's Blds, Salford
||27 Canal St, David St
||9 Lark St, Stone St
||14 Nelson St, Blakely St
||8 Arthur St, Mayfield
|| 1 Hulme St, Pope Gardens, Chorlton
||4 Edward St, Oldham Rd
||at Samuel Newton's, Friar Place, Hunts Bank
||9 Gt Mount St
||3 Worsley St, London Rd
||2 Oswald St, Miller St
||1 Hayes Yard, Newberry St
||10 Prussia St, off Oldham Rd
||2 Melbourne Place, Melbourne St, Hulme
||18 Groom St, Butler St
||Marland's Blds, Carter St, Long Millgate
||27 Given St, Hulme
||2 Herod St
||16 Cable St
||19 Club Row, Oldham Rd
||7 Rusholme Lane, Chorlton upon Medlock
||66 Red Bank
||Pollard St, Ancoats
||9 Ann St, Chorlton upon Medlock
||14 Dunn St, Moss Lane, Hulme
||14 Neild St
||19 Spring Field Lane, Salford
||5 Wright St, Bk Quay St
||9 Gt Mount St, Watson St
||11 Prospect St, top of St Stephen's St,
||3 Guy St, Fairfield St
||6 Woolam Place, Liverpool Rd
||49 Spinning Field, Deansgate
||27 Owen St, Hulme
||4 Dumville St, Knott Mill
||11 Caygill St, Salford
||Hargreaves Ct, Bk Piccadilly
||3 Stage Blds, Parsonage
||7 Scotland St, Red bank
||12 Dawson's Croft, Greengate, Salford
||25 Union St, Salford
||Groom's Blds, Cow lane, Oldfield Lane
||11 Portland St, Newtown
||2 Dumville St, Byson St
||5 Alpha St, Hulme
||George Leigh St, Ancoats
||6 Hutchinson St, Salford
|John Spence Coombs
||7 Rusholme Lane, Chorlton upon Medlock
||Under Bridge Academy, George St, Salford
||19 Red Bank
||10 Copley's Blds, Hanging Bridge
||3 Heap's Ct, Cow Lane, Salford
||18 Crown St, Butler St
||6 John St, Gt Ancoats St
||4 McCree's Blds, Hargreaves St, Hulme
||13 Hardman St
||24 Bk Holgate St, Nr Mason st
||Tray's Place, Nr Strangeways
||8 Albion St, Granby Row
||20 Barrett St, Oldham Rd
||3 Cross St, Chorlton upon Medlock
||8 Heap's Ct, Cow Lane, Salford
||Robert's St, Uxbridge St, Salford
||Garden St, Old St, Ardwick
||3 Bk Faulkner St
||91 Clarendon St, Hulme
||1 James St, Phillips St, Springfield Lane,
||4 Robert's Blds, Bradshaw St, Hulme
||4 Nelson St, Ashley Lane
||2 Joiner St, Rochdale Rd
||30 Wood St
||37 Lomas St, London Rd
||45 Broster St, Broughton Rd, Salford
||5 York St, Springfield Lane, Salford
||11 Mayo St, Ardwick
||15 Spencer St, Holt Town
||5 Nutall's Blds, back of 117 Every St
||4 Bilbery St, Newtown
||36 Every St, Ancoats
||25 Union St, Salford
||ditto or 14 Fleet St, Deansgate
||80 Red Bank
||18 Spear St, Bk Piccadilly
That Percival Jefferson engaged as clerk in the Borough Police at
a salary of 17/- per week
*This appears to be the John Maybury who embroiled in the events of
September 18th 1867. See here.
3rd June 1839
Candidates to be interviewed for the post of Head Constable:
Charles George Finney, J H Hatton, Richard Beswick, John Stephens, James
D H Hay.
Richard Beswick appointed Head Constable.
Edward Davies of Manchester appointed Indoor Superintendent of the
Borough Constabulary Force.
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SEE THE MANCHESTER COLLECTION
4th June 1839
Candidates for Superintendents:
Richard Cockrane from Liverpool
William Smith from Liverpool
John Poole from Liverpool
James Sawley of Manchester Police
Abraham Brierly Deputy Constable of Cheetham
Cyrus Allcock Deputy Constable of Hulme
John Phoenix of Manchester Police
Richard Green of Manchester Police
James Irwin of Manchester Police
John Smith of Manchester Police
Major G E McClean from Fort William
Resolved - Appointed as Superintendents:
James Sawley, Richard Cockrane, Cyrus Allcock
5th June 1839
Christopher Charles Stephenson of Hull, George Pierce of
Liverpool, Frederick Mainwaring of Liverpool appointed
Richard Green and John Phoenix of the Manchester Police appointed
Lock-up Keepers. Robert Love of the Ardwick Police appointed Inspector.
Joseph Ankers deputy Constable of Chorlton upon Medlock appointed
6th June 1839 (Morning)
Resolved that David Lipsett, John Butcher, Charles Dale and William
Sickle appointed Inspectors.
Resolved that ten of the appointments of Inspector be held over.
Resolved that the following men be appointed Lock-up Keepers: John
Livingston, Thomas Rushton, Thomas Norbury, George Armitage, William
Resolved that the following men be appointed Indoor Constables: James
Williamson, William Baxendale, Archibald McMullen, Benjamin Cross,
Robert Boyd, Squire Wolfenden (various spellings appear later),Thomas Hindley, Isaac Lomas.
6th June 1839 (Afternoon)
Resolved that the following Constables previously employed by Chorlton
Row be appointed Constables in the Manchester Borough Police Force:
Alexander McDonald, Stewart Mitchell, Anthony Ashworth, John Fielding,
John Mereweather, Nathaniel Aspinale, Edward Hawood, David McBiviney,
Daniel Paliss, John Massey, William Astliss, Robert Mycock, John
Barratt, Hugh McCabe, Joseph Stead, Thomas Robinson, Samuel Barlow,
Thomas Glover, John Loftus, William Wakefield, John Evans, George
Scargill, Thomas [Hyburn]. Peter Street.
These men previously employed by Hulme township were appointed as
constables: Dionysius Kock, James Gilhooley, Thomas Fitzpatrick, William
Rensahw, James Morris, John Whitcomb, Joseph Webb, John Waddington,
Thomas Partington, John Carter, John Houghton, Samuel Irlam, Jonas
Bradley, Edward Wilson, Thomas Lamb, William Hill, James Bradbury.
These men who had been previously employed by the Ardwick
Commissioners were appointed Constables: John Donnaghan, John Davies,
Daniel Mitton, Thomas Hazlehurst, Joseph Woolley, Philip Ryan, John
Burgess, John Murphy, Robert Boyes, Thomas Harrison, Samuel Rawston,
John Hayhurst, George Davies.
These men had previously been employed by Cheetham Police were appointed
Constables: James Bennett, 55 Long Millgate. William Tankard, Samuel
Knose, Thomas Lancaster, James Kirk, David Daniels, John Birtles, George
Matthew Wood of Beswick was also appointed a Constable.
Meeting 7th June 1839
Peter Bailey, Henry Emery and William Hancock, all previously employed
by the Chorlton Commissioners were appointed Constables.
The following parties were appointed Constables: John Goodier,
Bartholomew Sticky, Daniel Sullivan (Chorlton), Ralf Cottam, John [O'ckel]
(Chorlton), George Wilson, Samuel Pollard, John Samuels, Squire George
Wolfenden, John Fallon, William Robinson, Edward Hayes, Thomas Fildes,
John Clarke, George Smith, James Smith, Francis Beamish, John Harley,
Charles Plant, John Barton, Edward Robbins, Edward Ward, William Bowkers,
Thomas Taylor, John Dickson, Thomas Dalton, John Salter, George Booth,
Roger Judge, Gillham Andrews, John Wentworth, Lewis Lipsett, Charles
Dibble, William Henry Hutt, Charles Bingham, John Grieg, John Savage,
Benjamin Simpson. George Runnett, William Hill, George Woodruffe,
Frederick John Henry Chadwick, Thomas Fazackerley, William Roberts,
Melville Burton, John Doyle, George Page, Frederick Rouse, John Minshull,
Alexander Kyle Daly,Henry Rose, Peter Rogers, Richard Richardson, John
Cartmill, Benjamin Whitehead, Dennis Pullen, Samuel Bennett, John
Summerfield, James Brindley, Andrew Moon, Joseph Oakes, John Archer,
William Hesketh, Richard Royston, Joseph Astle, T Reid, Charles B
Strong, Philip Shannon, Isaac Hobson, Samuel Hankinson, Gabriel Walsh,
Bernard Sands, William Jardine.
Meeting 8th June 1839
Resolved that the garments which shall be provided for the Police
Constables shall consist of a top coat, body coat, one pair of trousers
and a hat. That the colour of the clothes to be provided shall be of
blue and the same cut, and the hat similar to those worn by the
Watch Committee Announcement
Whereas the Watch Committee for the Borough of Manchester have in due
[force] of Law according to the provisions of the Statute in that behalf
made and provided appointed a sufficient number of fit men who have been
sworn in before Thomas Potter Esquire a justice of the Peace having
jurisdiction within the said Borough to act as Constables for preserving
the peace by [day] and by night and preventing robberies and other
felonies and apprehending offenders against the peace. Notice is hereby
given that the said Borough in manner aforesaid on Monday the
seventeenth day of June in this present year and all and every person
having the charge, control, possession of any Watch Houses or Watch Boxes
in the said Borough of Manchester or of any arm or accoutrements or
other necessaries provided at the public expense for any Watchman,
Constables, Patrol or Police therein are hereby acquired ordered and
directed to give and deliver up the said Watch Houses, Watch Boxes,
arms, accoutrements, or other necessaries unto Mr Richard Beswick and Mr
Edward Davies being persons appointed by me the undersigned Mayor of the
said Borough of Manchester named and appointed to receive the same on
the said seventeenth day of June in this present year. And herein the
said several persons are not to fail at their peril.
Dated the seventeenth of June in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and thirty nine.
Thomas Potter. Mayor of the said Borough of Manchester.
Resolved that bells be provided for men on night duty under the
directions of the Clothing Committee. That Mr Beswick be instructed to
see that the day and night Police are provided with staves and rattles
when they enter on their duties.
Meeting 18th June 1839
Resolved that Mr Joshua J Howell of Liverpool be engaged as Senior
Clerk in the Police Office at a salary of one hundred and twenty pounds
[per year] and that his salary and duties commence on the twenty fourth
day of June.
Meeting 20th June 1839
The following men were appointed as constables
|Charles Henry Murphy
Meeting 21st June 1839
Resolved that Mr Beswick be authorised to procure fro the sue of the
Police, twelve pairs of handcuffs, four pairs of leg irons and also a
standard for measuring the height of applicants for the situation of
Meeting 27th June 1839
The following men were appointed as Constables: William Henry Eckersley,
Phillip Scullen and Thomas Egan.
Resolved that the several Officers and Police Constables in the employ
of the Watch Committee be required to reside within the limits of the
Borough. Notice be given on or before the 1st day of July next that the
Officers and police Constables at present in the employ of the Watch
Committee will be required to comply with said requisition within twenty
eight days from the said 1st day of July next.
Meeting July 1st 1839
Ordered that all fines imposed
upon any of the Police Constables or Officers by this committee shall be paid into and
kept as a reserve fund, such fund to be at the disposal of this
committee in the payment of rewards or other extra allowances and
Meeting July 4th 1839
That PC William Fletcher be summoned before the
Borough Council for being drunk when going off duty on the 28th ulto.
And for absenting himself from duty since that date.
This is the first discipline case recorded.
Meeting July 6th 1839
That Mr William Robinson be
and is now appointed Clerk in the office of the Indoor superintendent at
a salary of 25/- per week; the salary and duties of such appointment to
commence on Monday 8th July and that one months' notice be given by the
said William Robinson before resigning such appointment.
That James Smith be appointed
Clerk in the Head constables office at a salary of 21/- per week from
Monday 8th July.
That Thomas Coster be appointed Clerk to the South
Police station at a salary ODF 17/- per week from Monday 8th July.
That PC James McDonald having
for several weeks acted as clerk at the North Police station now
appointed Clerk for such police station at a salary of 17/- per week.
Meeting July 8th 1839
That Inspector Wm Sickle be
appointed Coroner's Officer at a salary of 27/- per week, with
That John Lowe is appointed PC at 17/- per week to
commence duty immediately.
Meeting July 11th 1839
That PC 26 James Groom be
summoned before the Borough Court for absenting himself from from duty.
That Frederick John Henry
Chadwick having for some time past satisfactorily discharged the duties
of acting Inspector is hereby appointed an Inspector in the Borough
That the following parties who have been for some
time in the employ of the Watch Committee are appointed PCs:
Dennis Moran, Nathaniel Forth, Benjamin McClean,
Samuel Hewitt, John Mills.
That Mr Beswick be authorised
to procure for the use of the Police Inspectors and indoor constables 32
pairs of snap handcuffs.
That PCs George Taylor and Samuel Bennett, having
for some time past satisfactorily discharged the duties of acting
inspectors be appointed Inspectors in the Borough Police force.
That the following memorial
from Mr Higson regarding the appointment of a Head Lock-up Keeper be
entered into the minutes.
The Clerks to the Magistrates in conjunction with
Mr Beswick and Mr Davies respectfully submits to the consideration of
the watch Committee the necessity of appointing an officer of police to
be styled the Head Lock-up Keeper. The duties of the office will be:
He should attend at the Centre Lock-ups at 7.00
o'clock every morning (except Sunday) to receive from the District
Lock-up Keepers the prisoners and property taken from them check king
the same from the district sheets to see if all be correct - he will then
fill up his general daily charge book from the sheets and also the
Magistrates' Clerk's book. After which he will take the prisoners
separately from the cells and examine them to see if there are any marks
or other proofs which may lead to their identity as old offenders and
which have escaped the notice of the district lock-up keepers; but upon
no account is he allowed to question the prisoners respecting the
charges upon which they are then in custody. Guided the the description
and the information before him he is to refer to the Thieves Description
book and if it appears that any of the prisoners have been previously in
custody or convicted, he should note the same, the numbers of times &c
on a slip of paper which he will take with him into court to be prepared
to answer the inquiry of the Magistrates. When the court is opened he
will attend and place the prisoners as they are called before the
Magistrates and record the judgement and in what manner the property
taken from the prisoner is to be disposed of writing the same in the
columns of his Charge Book appropriate for that purpose. He will also
receive all fines and costs imposed upon prisoners convicted by the
Magistrates for assaults, drunkenness &C &C for which he will weekly
account to the Magistrates' Clerk or the treasurer. When the business of
the court is over he will see such prisoners as are committed safely
delivered to the Gaoler of the New Bailey Prison.
He will attend to deliver the property of
prisoners according to the order of the Magistrates taking receipts for
all articles so delivered and the remainder he will hand over to the
Indoor Superintendent taking his receipt for the same. He will
superintend the victualling of all remanded prisoners of others whose
term of confinement is so short as not to render it necessary to deliver
them to the Gaoler of the New Bailey. Lastly he will fill up the the
Thieves' Description Book as circumstances may require.
At Present such of the above duties as relate to
the charge of prisoners and the reception of fines are discharged by the
Indoor Constables alternatively, the mode is not only very objectionable
on account of the changes but inefficient and if continued will prevent
the system of books above mentioned from being kept with that facility
and regularity which the appointment of one principal and responsible
Lock-up Keeper will otherwise insure.
July 4th 1839
That a Head Lock-up Keeper as
described above be appointed.
That Richard Green one of the
present Lock-up Keepers shall be appointed Head Lock-up Keeper.
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SEE THE MANCHESTER COLLECTION
Meeting July 18th 1839
That application made to use
the Lock-up under the Town Hall in Chorlton-upon-Medlock.
Meeting July 22nd 1839
Inspector Love was charged by
Inspector Bibby (acting as Superintendent in the absence of
Superintendent Stephenson) with having on Friday night and Saturday
morning last neglected his duty which was proved by the evidence of
That Inspector Love be forthwith dismissed from
the service of this committee for such neglect of duty.
That the wages of PC John
Pullien be paid him for such time as he may be absent from duty in
consequences of severe injuries received by him in the discharge
Mr Superintendent Sawley having submitted a
summons which had been served upon him requiring his attendance at the
New Bailey courthouse to answer a charge of assault committed whilst on
duty within the Borough and a report on that subject of such assault
having been submitted by the Head Constable.
That this committee are decidedly of the opinion
that the above charge of assault ought to be heard before the Borough
Justices sitting at the Court House in Brown St, or otherwise by this
committee, and that Mr Superintendent Sawley therefore ought not to
appear before the Justices of the peace sitting at the Court House in
Salford to answer such charge they not having jurisdiction within this
Borough, and that this committee will be prepared to submit the charge
for their consideration.
Copy of above sent to the New Bailey Court House.
The following who have or some
time been in the employ of this committee now appointed Police
Constables of the Borough.
|| John Shaw
19th July 1839
To the Head constable of the Borough of
In consequence of a turn out of some of my work
people my mill is regularly beset at the time when workers are
proceeding to and from their work. To prevent disturbance, I consider it
absolutely necessary a strong force of police should be in the
neighbourhood. If you could put a policeman near my mill until this
disturbance is settled I shall willingly pay for this extra service.
I am Sir,
Resolved: That the Head Constable be
authorised to station a police constable out of uniform at Mr Pooley's
mill for the purpose of watching the proceedings of the turnouts on the
condition that Mr Pooley pay 3/- per day for such services.
Head Constables Report.
The Head Constable begs to
recommend to the Borough Watch Committee the necessity of having 24
Inspectors instead of 20 as proposed by the Council at the forming of
the Borough Constabulary Force. The Head Constable finding it impossible
to have the police constables sufficiently watched with a less number
than 24 namely 16 for night and 8 for day duty. At the time the Borough
Police commenced their duties, the Head Constable made such report to
the Watch Committee who ordered that he should appoint 4 of the police
constables to discharge the duties of acting inspectors in which manner
those duties are now performed.
The Head Constable is of the
opinion that if 4 other Inspectors were permanently appointed it would
be for the advantage of the Borough as the police constables would be
better watched and consequently they would be kept more attentive to
The Head Constable also begs to recommend to the
committee the necessity of appointing a number of Expectant Constables
who should be clothed and paid at a reduced salary, who shall parade at
the stations for the purpose of going on the Beats of those permanent
men who may be absent through sickness &c and whose pay is stopped while
off duty, the total of which is considerable.
The Head Constable is of the
opinion that this additional men will be little or no more expense than
that at present as no doubt frequent applications will be made for
officers to attend theatre, concerts, and other places in which cases
the parties making the application will have to pay such sum per day as
may be fixed upon by the Watch committee for such attendance.
Signed Rich. Beswick.
Meeting 25th July
A report was presented by the Head Constable that
17 Inspectors and 208 police constables were on extra duty for 4 hours
on the evening of Saturday 13th July in order to prepared to act in the
case of any riot or disturbance.
That in consideration of such extra service the
sum of one shilling and sixpence be paid to the Inspectors and one
shilling to the Constables.
A report having be made by the
Town Clerk that application would be made to the Magistrates at the New
Bailey for a warrant against Mr. Superintendent Sawley for disobeying
the summons with which he had been served for an alleged assault in
pursuance of the resolution of this committee at the meeting of 22nd
That the Town Clerk be instructed to take such
proceedings as may appear desirable in reference to the intended
application to the County Magistrates for a warrant against Mr.
That the Watch Committee be are are hereby
authorised and empowered to appoint four additional Inspectors for the
Borough Police Force as recommended in the report Frisco Head Constable
entered upon the minutes of the proceedings of the Watch Committee now
read. And also to appoint such numbers of Expectant Constables be
required in order to increase the efficiency of the Borough Police
Meeting 1st August 1839
That the wages of the following police constables
be paid them for such time as they have or may be absent from duty in
consequences of injuries received by them in the discharge of thereof,
viz PC 15 William Taylor and PC T. P. Rouse.
A report having been made that
PC 93 H. Hindley had discovered a fire in the premises of Mr Wallis –
Timber Merchant and from his vigilance and activity the fire was
extinguished before much damage had been done.
That PC 93 H. Hindley be paid 5/- out of the Fine
Fund as a reward for such services.
That PC 220 Joseph Field be paid 5/- out of the
Fine Fund as a reward for great exertion in the discharge of his duty.
That Inspector Lipsett be paid 9/- for the day he was
necessarily absent from duty, giving evidence in a trial at Liverpool.
That Inspector Heath be paid 3/- for the day he
was necessarily absent from duty giving evidence in a trail at Wigan.
Meeting 5th August 1839
That the following parties who
have for some time been in the employ of this committee are appointed as
||Robert F Joddrell
||Squire John Wolfenden
That the wages of P. Jefferson clerk in the Indoor
Superintendent's Office be advanced to 21/- per week, to commence from
Friday 9th August.
Meeting 8th August 1839
The Head Constable having reported that a summons
had been served upon PC William Hancock requiring him to appear before
the Magistrates sitting at the New Bailey court House in Salford to
answer an alleged charge of assault committed upon Mrs. Elizabeth Dobson
at Chorlton upon Medlock, and that such charge had been previously
stated by Mrs. Dobson before this Committee and a fine of 5/- inflicted upon William
Meeting 22nd August 1839
That the Indoor Superintendent be authorised to
procure 5 dozens of staffs for the use of the night Police Constables.
A letter having been read from
Thomas Jackson, who person who had obstructed and assaulted PC No
(Blank) while in the discharge of his duty, and for which he Thomas
Jackson been bound over to answer a charge before the Borough
Magistrates, expressing his sorrow for such improper conduct and a
desire that this committee would consider the propriety of disposing of
the case so as to prevent the necessity of this having to appear before
the Magistrates to answer the charge preferred against him.
That on condition of Thomas Jackson making a
public apology for his misconduct, by placard throughout the town and
paying the expense thereof, this Committee will consent to forego taking
further legal proceedings against him.
Meeting 26th August 1839
That 159 lanterns be provided for Police
Constables under the direction of Mr Davies the Indoor Superintendent.
That James Seddon be employed on trial for one
week to clean the Lock-up and Police Office and the Police Arms and
Accoutrements, and also to act as occasional porter forth Borough Police
Meeting 9th September 1839
Several charges of neglect of
duty and impropriety of conduct having been made and proved against
Inspectors Chadwick and Bennett.
That they be reduced from the office of Inspector
to that of Police Constable.
A report having been made at
the last meeting of the Committee by Superintendent Stephenson, that PC
Edward Ward had attempted to defraud him by offering what appeared to Mr
Stephenson to be a counterfeit sovereign , stating it to be one he had
received for wages, and requiring another in place of it. From the
evidence then brought forward it appeared to the committee that PC
Edward Ward had been guilty of an attempt at fraud, and they therefore
discharged him from the service: further evidence having now been
produced and heard by the Committee from which it appears that there was
no intention on the part of the PC to defraud Mr Stephenson but that he
himself had been deceived into the supposition that the sovereign was
bad by its being discoloured by mercury when paid to him, and which had
not been noticed by Mr Stephenson, who naturally supposed the PC wished
to defraud him.
That under such circumstances application be made
to two of the Borough Magistrates to sanction the reappointment of
Edward Ward to the office of Police Constable and that when such
sanction is obtained he be reinstated in the said office.
Meeting 12th September 1839
That the following parties having been for some
time employed by the Committee as extra constables of this Borough.
That the following Police Constables having now
for some time performed the duties of acting Inspector to the
satisfaction of the Committee are appointed Inspectors in the Borough
Meeting 23rd September 1839
That a communication be made on behalf of this
Committee to the Watch Committee of the Commissioners Of Police
informing them that Police Constable Foster had been discharged for the
disgraceful conduct of which he was ;proved to have been guilty of on
the morning the 19th instant and recommending that the Watch Committee
[of the Commissioners] should cause enquiries to made into the conduct
of their conductors McGrath and of the watchman No 11 and others which
on the occasion referred to appears to this committee to have been very
disgraceful, and such was most likely to lead to a very serious breach
of the peace, more especially that of the conductor McGrath who is
proved to have been that morning drinking with Foster and other
constables, and who although requested so to do did not appear before
this committee when the case was enquired into.
Meeting 14th October 1839
That the letter received from Mr Charles Shaw
Chief Commissioner of Police together with lists of the Police
Constables appointed and rejected by him who are now in the employ of
this Committee be entered into the minutes
The 17th instant having as you
are aware been fixed upon for putting into force the Act of Parliament
for the Manchester New Police, I beg to forward to you the result of the
examination of the men now employed in your force who have been brought
before me as candidates for employment in the New Police.
In communicating this result I beg to assure you
that I have been actuated by a sincere desire of retaining in the New
Service every man who was before employed, and whose conduct, character
and physical ability would warrant me in recommending him to the
secretary of State for appointment.
In making this selection I have carefully
considered the previous service of the men, the opinions given by their
officers , their testimonials and every information which has been made
available to me. I trust therefore that the result as regards the men in
your service will prove satisfactory to you.
I must not however
conceal from myself the possibility of my having in some instances been
mistaken or misinformed , but these instances , I trust be speedily be
detected by me and remedied.
I have the honor (sic) to be Gentlemen
Your most obedient humble servant
No 1 Manchester Police Force
The undermentioned men
having been elected by the Chief Commissioner to serve in the New Police
Force. They are hereby informed that they will hold themselves in
readiness to be sworn in at the time and the place which will duly be
specified to them previous to Thursday 17th October 1839.
|| John Smith
|| Robert Dunn
John Mabury [Maybury]
||R F Joddrell
No 2 Manchester Borough Police Force
The Chief Commissioner
of Police is unavoidably constrained to dispense with the services of
the constables contained in the following list who are now in the employ
of the Borough Watch Committee but in accordance with the Chief
Commissioner's original intention these men 73 in number are placed upon
a supplementary list from whence they may be chosen to fill the vacancies
which may from time to time occur in the New Police Force.
No 3 Manchester Borough Police Force
The following men
having been found unfit by the surgeon for the service of the police
they are hereby informed that they are inadmissible into that force.
|| William Baxter
|| John Priddon
|| William Jardine
|| Matthew Wood
||W H Eckersley
|| Stewart Mitchell
||C B Strong
|| Lawrence [O'Neil]
Manchester Borough Police Force
The following men having neglected
(though duly warned) to attend the medical examination of the surgeon
they are hereby informed that they are inadmissible into the New Police
|| Robert Boyle
|| John Minshull
||Squire G Wovenden
[Previously spelt Woolfenden]
|| George Cage
|| Thomas Harrison
|| John Burgess
|| J S Combs
|| Lewis Lipsett
|| Thomas Wybrant
|| Samuel Pollard
|| Isaac Nadin
|| Joseph Little
|| Francis Hutchin
|| John Toomey
That as soon as convenient to the Head Constable, the Police Constables
contained in the above list No 1 be summonsed to attend at one of the
police stations, for the purpose of having read to them the
communication received from Mr Charles Shaw, the Chief Commissioner of
Police in reference to their appointment under him; and that in addition
to reading such communication the Head constable at the same time inform
them, that in consequence of such appointment their service will not be
required after the 16th day of October.
That the Head
Constable be also directed to summon the Police Constables contained in
the above list No 2 for the purpose of having read to them the
communication received from Mr Charles Shaw, the Chief Commissioner of
Police in reference to them; and in addition to reading such
communication he at the same time inform them that their service will
not be required by this committee after Wednesday 16th October., and
also that a further communication will be made to them in reference to
compensation of notice.
That the Head Constable be
also directed to summon the Police Constables contained in the above
list No 3 for the purpose of having read to them the communication
received from Mr Charles Shaw, the Chief Commissioner of Police in
reference to them; and in addition to reading such communication he at
the same time inform them that their service will not be required by
this committee after Wednesday 16th October, and also that four weeks
wages (in lieu of notice) will be paid to them, commencing from Tuesday
That the Head Constable be also
directed to summon the Police Constables contained in the above list No
4 for the purpose of having read to them the communication received from
Mr Charles Shaw, the Chief Commissioner of Police in reference to them;
and in addition to reading such communication he at the same time inform
them that their service will not be required by this committee after
Wednesday 16th October.
Meeting 21st October 1839
The undersigned Inspectors of the Borough Police beg most respectfully
to submit to the consideration of the Chairman and the Gentlemen of the
Watch Committee the following statement;
that we have been in the
service of the present Establishment from its commencement and that we
have always endeavoured to perform the duties entrusted to us, so as to
meet the approbation of our superiors and we trusted that our services
would be continued , whilst such was our conduct. We are therefore much
surprised and hurt to find our names are omitted in the appointments
made by the Chief Commissioner Sir Charles Shaw, and that our services
are to be dispensed with at a month's notice.
Many if us have been
connected with police business in the Town for nearly six years thus
increasing the difficulties of obtaining situations in any other
pursuits. We again therefore beg to hope that our case will be found to
merit the favourable consideration of the Watch Committee.
William Kirkwood, Joshua Brown, Charles Dale, George Pierce, John
Davies, John Madders, John Samuels, Frederick Mainwaring and Matthew
That the consideration of the above letter
be postponed until the next meeting of the Committee.
That one weeks wages be paid to the four
inspectors who have appeared before the committee – and also Inspector
Weddell who did not appear – and that the Gentlemen before deputed to
see Sir Charles Shaw be requested to make enquiries as to the
possibility of any of the above named parties being employed in the New
That the wages of James Seddon for the
past week be paid to him and he be informed that his services will no
longer be required by this committee.
Meeting 31st October 1839
That the late Inspectors Madders, Brown, Weddell and
Mainwaring be informed that in consequence of their having declined to
accept employment under the Chief Commissioner of Police no further
allowance will be made by this Committee.
wages of James Smith clerk in the Police Office be paid him up to the
31st inst. He having been engaged by Sir Charles Shaw from this day.
Sir Charles Shaw having stated that he should not use the Night and
Day Staves, Ricks, and Lanterns furnished to him by this Committee.
That the same be forthwith obtained from him and placed
in the custody of the Town clerk for safe keeping.
Meeting 8th November
That David Conn late PC 179 in the Borough
Police Force whose name is omitted from the lists sent in by Sir Charles
Shaw, and being still unemployed, be allowed and paid 3 weeks wages from
the 17th October last.
That a further allowance of
one week's pay from the 31st October last be made to such of the men in
List No 2 sent in by Sir Charles Shaw as have not yet been employed by
Sir Charles Shaw or any other part; and also that the nine men in such
list who have obtained employment since the 31st Ult. Be paid for the
number of days they have been unemployed since that date.
The undersigned having been deputed by the
Watch committee to obtain from Sir Charles Shaw such information in
reference to the number and general arrangement of the present Police
Force as appears to necessary in order to enable the Watch Committee to
perform the duties devolving upon them in consequence of the Resolution
of the Council on the 22nd November last.
That the present Police
Force appointed by Sir Charles Shaw the Chief Commissioner under the
provisions of the 2nd and 3rd Victoria cap 87 consists, including officers
and men of 383 individuals viz: 64 Officers and 319 Police Constables.
That the officers include:
1 The Chief Commissioner, 1 Chief Superintendent, 1 Chief Clerk,
1 Receiver or Treasurer, 4 Superintendents, 9 Inspectors, 16 Superior
Sergeants, 31 Sergeants 64 total.
That the following are the
locations of the present Police Stations an Lock-ups viz:
Police Office: Town Hall, King St.
Station House: Ridgefield.
Station House + Lock-up: Oldham Road.
A lock-up: Kirby Street.
Station House: Great Jackson Street, Hulme.
Lock-up: Town Hall:
Chorlton upon Medlock.
Station and Division House: Allum Street,
The situations of the present Police Stations and Lock-ups
are considered by Sir Charles Shaw to decidedly inconvenient, and other
and more convenient places will be selected so soon as he can obtain
them,and when fixed upon and occupied Sir Charles intends to give public
notice, and that at such places all information as to Felonies may be
given and the assistance of the police obtained.
Notice was given on
or about the 17th December last that thereafter the name of no candidate
for admission to the Police would be enrolled, if the party applying be
above 40 years of age, under 5 feet 7 inches in height without his
shoes, and unless he can read and write perfectly, is free from bodily
complaint, of a strong constitution and generally intelligent.
forming his police Sir Charles Shaw appointed 303 police Constables who
had previously served in the different Police Establishments within the
Borough. Of this number 245 still remain in the force, 58 having
resigned or been dismissed, and of which number 2/3 have resigned.
That there are at the present time 80 Police Constables on
beats employed in permanent day duty – which commences at 6 o'clock in
the morning and terminates at 9 o'clock in the evening: 40 of whom go on
duty at 6 o'clock, and remain until 9 o'clock; when they are relieved by
the remaining 40, who continue on duty till 2 o'clock:- the first relief
of 40 then go on duty at 2 o'clock and remain until 9 o'clock in the
evening:- the second relief of 40 also return at 5 o'clock and remain
until 9 o'clock: so that during the last four hours – viz from 5 o'clock
until 9 o'clock there are 80 Police Constable performing duty throughout
Besides the above there are on duty during the day at
several stations 6 Police Constables, who are relieved by six others;
also 5 police Constables engaged at the Borough Court, and one on
Special Duty; and in addition 3 employed as messengers and 1 as
Coroner's Officer, making a total of 22 Police Constables in addition to
the 80 or a total of 102 Police Constables.
at present during the night time from 9 o'clock in the evening until 6
o'clock in the morning 136 Police Constables on beats throughout the
Borough – the largest of which beats may be paced on the first round,
when the doors and windows are or ought to be examined, in 45 minutes,
and the shortest of such beats in 16 minutes or thereabouts: the average
time for going around the beats being about 28 minutes.
addition to the 136 Police Constables on Beats, there are also 72 Police
constables employed during the night as a patrol performing their duty
in the following manner, by which it will be seen there are at all times
50 Police Constables or thereabouts on duty as patrol in addition to the
136 men on Beats.
Thus 50 of the Patrol go out at 9 o'clock in the
evening leaving 22 at the Station; 25 of such 50 come in at 12 o'clock:-
about half an hour before they return, however, viz:- at half past
eleven the 22 first left go out:- at I o'clock the 25 out of the 50 come
in, when the 25 who came in first go out and return at 3 o'clock:- the
22 who went out at half past 11 o'clock come in at 5o'clock, and at half
past four o'clock the 25 men in the Station House go out.
patrol is marched about under the charge of a superior and other
Officers:- and on arriving at such point as is fixed upon at the time,
is dispersed throughout the District with orders to re-assemble at
another point. After re-assembling the same process is repeated of
dispersion throughout another District and re-assembling at another
point; and this is continued during the time that each section of the
patrol continues on duty. The Patrol walk through the Districts at a
more rapid pace than the Police Constables engaged on Beats.
o'clock the Patrol all come in and the day duty commence.
also on reserve at the four police Stations 9 Police Constables making
with the 130 Police Constables on Beats, the 72 Police Constables as
Patrol, and 102 Police police Constables before stated to be engaged on
day duty a total of 319 Police Constables the number of the present
Of the officers the Chief Superintendent, Chief Clerk,
Receiver, 3 Superintendents, 6 Inspectors, 11 Superior Sergeants are
considered on duty both day and night – the 6 Inspectors and 11 Superior
Sergeants being divided into 2 Reliefs – 10 Sergeants are employed on
day duty and 18 Sergeants on night duty. - There are also engaged at the
Court 1 Superintendent 3 Superior Sergeants and 1 Sergeant: and on
special duty 3 Inspectors, 2 Superior Sergeants making a total including
the Chief Commissioner, a total of 64 Officers.
Any deficiency in
the Police Constables on Beats during during the night either from
sickness or any other cause, is supplied from the patrol force, the
number of which is therefore continually varying whilst the number of
the men on the Beats always remains the same.
In case of fire the
whole of the patrol are instructed immediately to repair to the spot,
the Police Constables on Beats giving the alarm to the firemen on their
respective rounds. The assistance of the police either by night or by
day may be obtained by meeting with a Police Constable on duty or by
application to one of the Police Stations or Lock-ups.
Sir Charles Shaw states that he
considers the number of Police Constables now employed on day duty quite
inadequate to the wants of the Borough, and too limited to permit any
satisfactory arrangement being made by which the public may , with the
dispatch desirable obtain the assistance of a Police Constable upon any
That the expenses of the present
Police Force will be between £21,500 and £22,000 per annum.
A copy of a letter addressed by Sir
Charles Shaw to the Mayor upon the character and efficiency of the
present police Force is hereunto annexed.
In conclusion we feel that it is due
to Sir Charles Shaw to acknowledge the courtesy with which we have at all
times been received by him, and the readiness with which he has answered
all questions put to him in relation to his Police Force.
day of January 1840
Signed: William Neild, James Murray,
James Hampson, Thomas Hopkins.
Since the preparation of the foregoing
report Sir Charles Shaw has stated that he has during the last four days
(and will so continue unless it should appear desirable again to change)
worked the patrol in the way before described from 9 o'clock until 12
o'clock at night only, at which hour the men forming the Patrol are sent
to act as Police Constables on Beats and so continue until 6 o'clock; so
that at present from 12 o'clock there are (in addition to the 136 Police
Constables on Beats) the numbers who that evening constitute the Patrol
also on duty on Beats.
Letter from Sir Charles Shaw to the
Mayor (previously mentioned).
Police Office, Town Hall
Manchester Dec 10th
My Dear Sir,
With reference to our conversation on
December last upon the subject of Police matters. I have the pleasure of
enclosing to you the answers attached to the queries which you left with
one upon that occasion. I can only say I trust they may be considered at
least sufficiently explanatory if not satisfactory.
Having thus acquainted you with the
general detail of the arrangements which I have after mature reflection
in every case found it necessary to adopt, I have thought that it would
not be inexpedient to take this opportunity of bringing likewise to your
knowledge , the various and vexatious difficulties which have been
thrown in my way since my arrival in Manchester.
The results of the opposition have
been to circulate reports of every possible nature, calculated to cause
either a misapprehension of the measures I have from time to time
adopted, or to uphold them to public disapproval. Had I therefore in any
degree permitted my mind to have been influenced by the conflicting
advice and criticisms, even of those who were, I verily believe, purely
actuated by a feeling on general interest for the welfare of Manchester,
I should have been in all probability now, where I had commenced,
and perhaps by this time have really merited some portion of that
“misunderstanding” which has so industriously been spread abroad.
I therefore my dear Sir request your
attention to the following sketch of the organisation of the Police
Force, and of its working from the commencement to the present period.
Upon my arrival in Manchester I found
three district Police Establishments, but my mind had been fully made up
(as it is now) carefully to avoid entertaining personal feelings either
in favour or otherwise of any party, but to be guided by a fine
sense of duty in every instance.
The numerical strength of these Forces
I found to amount to somewhere about 600 Constables under no general
control, and possessing no intercommunity of information, or any unity
of action. There numbers under the circumstances appeared to me
to have been more than sufficient; I am however convinced that that two
thirds of their numbers would, if not immediately, eventually be
necessary for the formation of an efficient Police Force. The sums
however expended upon these establishments I found to be about £40,000,
while to the contrary the means at my disposal were £16,500, a sum which
it must be confessed , is obviously inadequate, and which necessarily
prevented my competing in a numerical point of view with these united
Under the circumstances I was
constrained to proceed with extreme caution, and my operations were
commenced by selecting from the various forces as merely as
circumstances would admit, a proportionate number from each;and in
making this selection I was thrown entirely upon the candour and good
faith of their respective officers, as to their previous conduct and
merits; the Officers themselves likewise, who had served in these
forces, were selected by me with a due regard to their qualifications
and with reference to the information I obtained respecting them from
their Superiors, but in some instances it is true contrary to my opinion
and misgivings as to their fidelity or zeal, and these , I appointed
purely with the view of yielding (to the utmost limits consistent with
my duty) to the declared wishes of their former employers.
Upon the 17th
of October last, therefore, the day fixed upon by me for entering upon
my duties as Chief Commissioner, I swore in and embodied the
comparatively small number of 200 Constables; thus at once, making an
unfavourable impression in the eyes of the public at the first outset,
an unavoidable circumstance, which however every man of the world will
allow is a disadvantage difficult to overcome.
But this Force having been placed in
active operation, in the course of ten days, I found that it would be
necessary to increase its numbers and accordingly 50 additional
Constables were appointed. In a few days after, 50 more were added, and
these together formed a force (as it is at present constituted) of 300
Constables exclusive of Officers.
Pending these arrangements the working
of the Police Force for the first month ie from the 17th
October to the 17th
November even under all these manifold and striking disadvantages, has
not been unsatisfactory, but on the contrary, its daily increasing
efficiency has inspired me with every confidence with every confidence,
and I take the liberty of directing your attention to the grounds upon
which I have formed so favourably an opinion.
I find then, by a reference to the
public records of the three former Police Establishments in Manchester,
the number of prisoners taken by them conjunctively, during four months,
viz from 16th
June to 16th
October of this year was 4936, averaging per a month 1234
of which number (4963) there were discharged by the Magistrates 3184
cases, and committed for trial 1752, being an average of
committals per month of 438. The President Police Force (which
I have before stated consisted only for the last ten days of 300
constables) has during one month ie from 17th
October to 17th
November apprehended 928 criminals of whom, 492 were discharged and the
remainder committed for trial viz 436-this leaving a balance of 2 in
favour of the above three united establishments, which as I before
stated consisted of 600 constables. And may I be permitted here to draw
your attention to the great number of prisoners taken by the old forces
, as compared with the number committed for trial, viz less than ¼ ,
whereas the taken by the new police nearly ½ were committed for trial.
And surely this services some little discernment and discretion on the
part of the New Force.
I was however further gratified by an
enquiry of another nature, to which I had been prompted, by vague
rumours that had come to my knowledge , of the “alarming increase” of
informations lodged at the various stations of the present force,
regarding robberies, which had been committed since its commencement.
Upon a reference to the records
however I find that the district information of this nature lodged at
the three former police Establishment in four months ie from 10th
June to 16th
October this year amounted to 542, averaging per month over 182 . The
number of informations lodged at the various stations of the present
force from 17th
October to 17th
November was 143 and may I here take the opportunity of stating that
during that month, I have directed to be sent 68 letters to proprietors
of houses who had left their property exposed to plunder by leaving
their warehouse doors and windows open.
In conclusion I deem it a duty which I
owe to myself to draw your special attention to
the very responsible situation I have
placed myself in, by appointing a Force so much more numerous than the
means at my disposal (£16,500) will warrant. I have however been led to
take this step by the universal opinions expressed by the inhabitants,
that the force which I at first embodied, and which was adapted to the
means at my disposal was totally inadequate for the protection of the
Borough. With this opinion I entirely agreed and I rely with confidence
on the cordial support of the public when it becomes needful to appeal
to them for a supply to meet the deficiency which must necessarily occur
by continuing the present establishment.
The next few meetings deal with the
objections to a Bill before Parliament to amend the Act For The
Establishment of County and District Constables. Eventually the
offending clauses were removed from the Bill after representation by the
Council. The last meeting to be minuted was dated 26th
May 1840 and after this there was a gap with a meeting which was only
dated 1840-41. This meeting recorded the election of the members of the
Watch Committee for the following year and nothing more.
The next meeting to be recorded is
dated 23rd September 1842
May 1842 the powers of the Police Commissioners were transferred by deed
of transfer to Manchester Borough Council
However other sources state that
Manchester Borough Council did not retake overall control of the Police
Force via the Watch Committee until 1st
The story of the Manchester Borough Police
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